Everyone has heard of the Wars of the Roses, but not all appreciate that they are nothing to do with the counties of Lancashire and Yorkshire in Northern England. The dynastic struggle they represent was between the predominantly southern House of York and the predominantly northern House of Lancaster, but this too belies the complexity of the wars and their origins. The wars were the longest period of civil war in English history lasting from the period immediately following the Hundred Years War in the reign of the ineffectual king, Henry VI, until at least the Battle of Bosworth in 1485 when King Richard III became the last English king to die in battle, though the threat to the Lancastrian crown from the White Rose of York did not end there.
There were three periods of sustained conflict: 1453-1461 - ended by the bloodiest battle ever fought on English soil: the battle of Towton; 1469-1471 - ended by the death of Edouard of Lancaster at the battle of Tewkesbury and 1483-1487 - ended by the defeat and death of the Earl of Lincoln at East Stoke near Newark.